Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg wasn’t inclined to negotiate her proposed salary until she was emphatically urged by her late husband and brother-in-law.
In contrast, most respondents to Accenture’s 2016 online survey of 4,100 business executive women and men across 33 countries said they had asked for a pay increase.
Almost as many women as men asked for more salary, and the number of women who negotiated increased by 10% from earlier surveys.
These negotiation efforts were effective: Four out of five respondents who negotiated said they received a pay increase, confirming the mantra “Just Ask” while being prepared for “No.”
This result is more encouraging than Linda Babcock’s earlier finding that women tend not to ask for raises, and are less likely to receive salary increases when they do ask.
The Accenture study also found that nearly half of women and men respondents reported asking for a promotion to greater job responsibility, suggesting willingness to advocate for themselves to achieve monetary rewards.
Gender differences in negotiations reflect women’s “contextually contingent impression management strategies,” argued University of Texas’s Emily Amanatullah and Michael Morris of Columbia University.
Translated, this means that women’s assertive bargaining behavior is judged as congruent with female gender roles in some contexts.
As a result, many women consider this “contextual variation” and potential “backlash” against perceived incongruity when negotiating.
They adjust bargaining behavior to manage social impressions in contexts where assertive bargaining behavior is seen as incongruent with female gender roles.
Women who advocated for themselves reduced assertive behaviors and competing tactics, resulting in poorer negotiation outcomes.
In contrast, women advocated for others achieved better outcomes because they did not reduce assertive behaviors or engage in “hedging.”
“Negotiation is interdependent process – every bad deal you’ve gotten, you’ve agreed to,” argued Margaret Neale of Stanford Graduate School of Business.
If true, this outcome can be counteracted by adopting a mindset that “everything is negotiable.”
Her empirical research informed her recommended structure to achieve more effective negotiation outcomes, summarized by the acronym APAP:
– What are the Alternatives or fall-backs to negotiating?
– What are the Aspirational goals for the best possible outcomes?
-How realistic are these goals?
-What’s the “walk-away bottom line“?
– Assess: How much influence do you have?
– How might the benefits of negotiating outweigh the costs?
– Prepare: What are your interests (not positions, or proposed outcome)?
– What are the other person’s interests?
– Ask: Propose a solution that packages issues with benefits to the other, the group, and you
– Share information.
– Package: Avoid issue-by-issue negotiation by trading among issues.
– Use If-then statements for counter-proposals,
– Bundle alternative proposals.
An alternate model of three types of negotiation maneuvers was proposed by Simmons College’s Deborah Kolb and Carol Frohlinger of Negotiating Women, Inc.:
Power Moves attract others to participate in negotiation discussions:
- Offer incentives,
- Raise the cost of not negotiating,
- Enlist support.
Process Moves structure the negotiation interaction:
- Take control of the agenda,
- Seed ideas.
Appreciative Moves enable the negotiation conversation to continue:
- Solicit new perspectives,
- Enable the conversation to continue,
- Help others “save face.”
Kolb and Frohlinger advocated:
-Skill building (including mutual inquiry to co-construct solutions to replace traditional Distributive Exchange and Integrative Exchange models),
-Organizational development to overcome structural barriers to women’s advancement.
These interventions may also reduce unconscious bias that excludes women from developmental assignments and advancement.
A counterpoint argument is that women can control their self-development, but they have less control over their organization’s willingness to transform its culture, practices, and awareness of bias.
-*How likely are you to ask for a salary increase or promotion?
-*What factors do you consider before making a request for more money or an expanded role?
-*What is the best negotiation pitch you’ve heard for a job-related salary increase or role promotion?
-*How did the person overcome objections?
-*How did the person manage the relationship with the negotiating partner?
-*How do you ask for what you want at work?
-*What power tactics do you employ to influence your negotiation outcomes?
-*How do you prepare for negotiations and overcome objections during negotiations?