Assertive speech is assumed to signal competence and power, pre-requisites to status, power, and leadership in the U.S. workplace.
However, University of North Carolina’s Alison Fragale demonstrated that warmth trumps competence in collaborative team work groups.
Fragale studied “powerless speech,” which has been believed to make a person seem tentative, uncertain, and less likely to be promoted to expanded workplace roles.
She defined “powerless speech” as including:
- Hesitation: “Well” or “Um”, as known as “clutter words”
- Tag questions: “Don’t you think?”
- Hedges: “Sort of” or “Maybe”
- Disclaimers: “This may be a bad idea, but … “
- Formal addresses:“Yes, sir” or “Yes, ma’am”
In collaboration-based work teams, “powerless” speech characteristics are significantly associated with being promoted, gaining status and power.
Interpersonal warmth and effective team skills are valued more than dominance and ambition by team members and those selecting leaders for these teams.
In contrast, “powerful” speech does not feature these characteristics, is more effective when the task or group is independent and people are expected to work alone.
As in Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership, Fragale concludes that communication style should be tailored to group characteristics.
Likewise, INSEAD’s Li Huang and Columbia’s Adam Galinsky with Stanford’s Deborah Gruenfeld and Lucia Guillory of Northwestern University demonstrated the impact of “powerful” body language – also called “playing big” – on perceived power.
Although assuming “larger” postures is associated with credibility and authority, some situations benefit from assuming “smaller”, less powerful postures to establish warmth or to acknowledge another’s higher status.
As noted in an earlier post, Women Get More Promotions With “Behavioral Flexibility”, careful self-observation and behavioral flexibility based on situational requirements are effective foundations to establish group leadership.
-*How do you monitor and adapt “powerless” speech to work situations?
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