Tag Archives: Gravitas

Defining Elusive Elements of “Executive Presence”

Fewer researchers have empirically investigated behaviors and characteristics associated with “Executive Presence” than the number of consultants offering recommendations on how to develop this quality and its potential association with career advancement.

Sylvia Ann Hewlett

Sylvia Ann Hewlett

A previous blog post identified three characteristics associated with “executive presence” by Sylvia Ann Hewlett of the Center for Talent Innovation:  Communication, “Gravitas”, and Appearance.

Gavin Dagley

Interviews with 34 professionals, conducted by Perspex Consulting’s Gavin Dagley and Cadeyrn J. Gaskin, formerly of Deakin University, uncovered more elements than Hewitt’s proposed triad of qualities.

Caderyn Gaskin

They found that most executives described as having “presence” were men, reinforcing Hewitt’s assertion that women interested in career advancement should focus on conveying executive presence attributes to observers.

Dagley and Gaskin identified ten characteristics including those mentioned by Hewitt.
The first five characteristics are based on first impressions during initial contact:

  • Status and reputation, similar to “gravitas” discussed by Hewitt,
  • Physical appearance, also mentioned by Hewitt,
  • Confidence,
  • Communication ability, included in Hewitt’s “presence” triad,
  • Interpersonal engagement skills.

The final five attributes derive from evaluations over time during repeated contacts:

  • Interpersonal integrity,
  • Values-in-action,
  • Intellect and expertise,
  • Outcome delivery,
  • Coercive power.

These qualities combine in different ways to form four presence “archetypes”:

  • Positive presence, based on favorable impressions of confidence, communication, appearance, and engagement skills plus favorable evaluations of values, intellect, and expertise,
  • Unexpected presence, linked to unfavorable impressions of confidence plus favorable evaluations of intellect, expertise, and values,
  • Unsustainable presence combines favorable impressions of confidence, status, reputation, communication, and engagement skills plus unfavorable evaluations of values and integrity,
  • “Dark presence” is associated with unfavorable perceptions of engagement skills plus unfavorable evaluations of values, integrity, and coercive use of power.
Philippe De Backer

Philippe De Backer

Another typology of executive presence characteristics was identified by Sharon V. Voros and Bain’s Philippe de Backer.
They prioritized elements in order of importance to purportedly related life outcomes:

  • Focus on long term, strategic drivers,
  • Intellect,
  • Charisma, combining confidence, intensity, commitment, plus demeanor of care, concern and interest in others,
  • Communication skills,
  • Passion,
  • Cultural fit,
  • Poise,
  • Appearance.

Most people assume a relationship between “executive presence” and career “success,” even if the causal connection has not been demonstrated.

Fred Luthans

Fred Luthans

However, University of Nebraska’s Fred Luthans and Stuart Rosenkrantz with Richard M. Hodgetts of Florida International University investigated this relationship by observing nearly 300 managers from various levels at large and small mainstream organizations as they:

  • Communicated,
  • Engaged in “traditional management” activities, including planning, decision making, controlling,
  • Managed human resource issues.
Richard Hodgetts

Richard Hodgetts

Communication and interpersonal skills elements of “presence,” coupled with intentional “networking” and political acumen enabled managers to rapidly advance in their organizations.

Luthans and team identified these managers as “successful” leaders because they advanced more rapidly than “effective” managers, measured by participants’ organizational level compare with their organizational tenure.
In contrast, “effective” managers demonstrated greater managerial skill than “successful” managers, but were not promoted as quickly.

“Effective” managers spent most time managing human resource activities including:

  • Motivating/reinforcing,
  • Managing conflict,
  • Hiring/staffing,
  • Training/developing team members,
  • Communicating by exchanging information,
  • Processing paperwork.
Stuart Rosenkrantz

Stuart Rosenkrantz

Their subordinates reported more positive attitudes and behaviors than subordinates of “successful” managers for:

  • Job satisfaction,
  • Organizational commitment,
  • High team performance quality,
  • High team performance quantity.

Differences in advancement and subordinate reactions to “successful” and “effective” managers appear related to differing managerial behaviors.

Fred Luthans-Effective Managers“Successful” managers spent little time in managerial activities, but invested more effort in networking, socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders.
Their networking activities were most strongly related to career advancement but weakly associated with “effectiveness.”

Few managers were both “successful” and “effective”:  Only about 10% of volunteers were among the top third of both successful managers and effective managers.
These findings can lead to discouragement and cynicism, noting that effective managers who support employee performance may not be rewarded with advancement as rapidly as managers who prioritize their career over that of their employees.

These studies suggest that gravitas, communication, and political acumen may explain the gender difference for perceived “executive presence.”
Women who aspire to organizational advancement seem to benefit from cultivating both gravitas and proactive networking to complement communication and interpersonal skills.

-*Which behaviors and characteristics are essential to “Executive Presence”?

Related Posts

Twitter:  @kathrynwelds
Google+
Facebook

©Kathryn Welds

Executive Presence: “Gravitas”, Communication…and Appearance?

Executive Presence is intuitively considered essential to effectively execute key leadership roles.

Sylvia Ann Hewlett

Sylvia Ann Hewlett

Sylvia Ann Hewlett, economist, prolific researcher and CEO of Center for Talent Innovation, conducted 18 focus groups and 60 interviews to systematically investigate behavioral and attitudinal aspects of “Executive Presence” (EP).

She acknowledged that organizational advancement assumes knowledge, skill, competence, and “authenticity” tempered with “cultural fit.”
Interviewees opined that three elements are crucial components of “Executive Presence,” required for advancement to highest organizational levels, and estimated that  “EP” accounts for more than a quarter of factors that determine a next promotion:Executive Presence

  •  “Gravitas” – Authoritative Behavior
    • Confidence, composure
    • Decisiveness
    • Integrity
    • Emotional Intelligence: self-awareness, self-regulation, interpersonal skills
    • Clear personal “brand” reputation
    • Vision for leadership
    • Communication
      • Strong speaking skills  – Voice tone, clear articulation, grammatical speech convey competence, credibility
        Avoids:

        • Racially-biased comments
        • Off-color jokes
        • Crying
        • Swearing
        • Flirting
        • Scratching
        • Avoiding eye contact
        • Rambling
        • Giggling
        • Speaking shrilly
        • Posting critical or provocative online content
  • Presence”, “bearing”,  “charisma” including assertiveness, humor, and humility
  • Ability to sense audience engagement, emotion, interests
  • Appearance
    • Attention to grooming, posture
    • Physical attractiveness, normal weight
    • Well-maintained, professional attire

Executive Presence - MonarthHarrison Monarth, author of Executive Presence: The Art of Commanding Respect Like a CEO, emphasized “Image Management” via communication and self-marketing skills:

  • Creating and maintaining a compelling personal “brand” to influence others’ perceptions and willingness to collaborate
  • Managing online reputation, and recovering when communications go awry
  • Effectively persuading those who disagree, and gaining followers
  • Demonstrating “Emotional Intelligence” skills of self-awareness, awareness of others (empathic insight)

Monarth emphasized appearance’s importance less than Hewlett and Stanford legal scholar Deborah Rhode, whose The Beauty Bias: The Injustice of Appearance in Life and Law, reported long-standing findings of the “Halo Effect” – that appearance and non-verbal behavior influence available options for education, relationships, career advancement, salary negotiation, social status, and other life opportunities.

The Beauty BiasRhode estimated that annual world-wide investment in appearance is close to $200 billion in 2010 currency, and she contended that bias based on appearance:

  • Is prevalent
  • Infringes on individuals’ fundamental rights
  • Compromises merit principles
  • Reinforces negative stereotypes
  • Compounds disadvantages facing members of non-dominant races, classes, and gender.

“Executive Presence” is widely recognized as a prerequisite for leadership roles, yet its components have remained loosely-defined until systematic investigation by Hewlett’s team, Monarth’s consulting-based approach, and Rhode’s legal analysis.

-*Which elements seem most essential to “Executive Presence”?

See related posts

Twitter:  @kathrynwelds
Google+:
LinkedIn Open Group Diversity
Catalyst
Brazen Careerist
Facebook Notes

Blog: – Kathryn Welds | Curated Research and Commentary

©Kathryn Welds

Non-Verbal Behaviors that Signal “Charisma”

Olivia Fox Cabane

Olivia Fox Cabane

Olivia Fox Cabane defines charismatic behaviors as managing internal states and beliefs through self-awareness, emotional self-management to focus on others and “make them feel good,” in her book, The Charisma Myth: How Anyone Can Master the Art and Science of Personal Magnetism.

She identified four types of “charisma:”

o Focus: Presence, listening intently, confidence
o Visionary: Belief, confidence, inspires others
o Kindness: Warmth, confidence, eye contact, compassion/self-compassion, gratitude, goodwill, enable others to feel important and heard through asking open-ended questions, redirecting focus to other with question about opinion
o Authority: Power, status, confidence, appearance/clothing, “take up space” posture, reduce number of non-verbal reassurances (nodding)

Her book considers three key contributors to “charisma”:

o Presence – mindful attention, patient listening, avoiding interruption

o Power – appearance, clothing, occupy space, positive wording (avoid “don’t”), placebo effect

o Warmth – chin down, eye contact, Duchenne smile (mouth corners, eye corners), gratitude, compassion, appreciation to counteract “hedonic adaptation”

In an interview, Fox Cabane offered three “quick fixes” to amplify perceived “charisma”:

• Lower the intonation of your voice at the end of your sentences (no Valley Girl talk…)
• Reduce the speed and rapidity of nodding
• Pause for two seconds before you speak

She offered a number of self-management and communication tips, including a review of Cognitive Behavior Modification practices:

o Destigmatize Discomfort-Dedramatize
o Neutralize Negativity by disputing thoughts
o Rewrite Reality with cognitive reappraisal-reframing

Other reminders include:

• Increasing resilience by expanding the personal “comfort zone”
• Employing mental rehearsal through visualization
• Adopting equanimity, “radical acceptance”, calm
• Increasing impressions of similarity by increasing subtle mirroring of phrases, posture, gestures (such as handshake)
.Investigating appropriate attire, match level of formality/informality
o Delivering value: entertainment, information, good feeling
o Inhaling through nose to avoid anxious, breathless sound
o Using as few words as possible; be succinct; illustrate with imagery, metaphor, analogy, story, compelling statistics relevant to the listener
o Expressing appreciation for specific help, influence; identify positive impact, and context in which it came to mind
o Avoiding verbal “distractors”: “um”, “ah”, “you know”
o Breathing to avoid self-generated anxiety: ”Pause-Breathe-Slow Down”

-*Which elements of Power, Presence, and Warmth have you observed among the most “charismatic” people you know?

See related Amazon book review
LinkedIn Open Group Psychology in HR (Organisational Psychology)
Twitter: @kathrynwelds
Google+
Facebook Notes:

©Kathryn Welds