Tag Archives: Jim Collins

“Evolved” Leaders in an Era of Self-Interested Leadership

Jim Collins

Jim Collins

Organizations that are “built to last” are guided by “Level 5 Executives,” argued Jim Collins in Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap… and Others Don’t.

This style of leadership requires both personal humility and personal will, a combination not favored in the current US national leadership.

Collins proposed a developmental leadership hierarchy including:

  • Level 1 Highly Capable Individual, who applies knowledge, skills, abilities, and commitment to achieve team goal,
  • Level 2:   Contributing Team Member, who contributes to team goal achievement through effective collaboration,
  • Level 3Capable Manager, who sets plans and organizes others to achieve goals,
  • Level 4Effective Executive, who inspires others to act toward the shared vision,
  • Level 5:  Level 5 Executive combines personal will to achieve the organizational improvement goal, tempered with personal humility.
Modesto Maidique

Modesto Maidique

Drawing on developmental psychology theories by Jean Piaget as well as Harvard’s Lawrence Kohlberg, and Robert Kegan, Florida International University’s former President, Modesto A. Maidique proposed a six-level Purpose-Driven Model of Leadership

Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget

Leadership is service to others, organizations, and ideals, and follows a related developmental path:

  • Level One: Sociopath, who serves no one, exhibits low empathy, and destroys value and undermines others.
    Well-known examples are Muammar Gaddafi, Adolf Hitler, and Saddam Hussein.
Lawrence Kohlberg

Lawrence Kohlberg

  • Level Two: Opportunist, who serves himself or herself, often at others’ expense by focusing on “What’s in it for me?
    Examples include Bernie Madoff and Jeffrey Skilling.
  • Level Three: Chameleon, who “flip-flop” and cater to as many people as possible.
    Examples include Senator John Kerry, former Florida governor Charlie Crist, and former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney.
Robert Kegan

Robert Kegan

    • Level Four: Achiever, who often achieves business goals through energetic focus.
      Peter Drucker

      Peter Drucker

      Peter Drucker characterized this leader as “monomaniac with a mission,” driving toward a goal without fully considering the broader mission.
      Examples include former H-P CEO Mark Hurd.

    • Level Five: Builder, who seeks to build an institution, not just to achieve a goal.
      Examples include IBM’s Tom Watson Jr., GM’s Alfred P. Sloan, and Harpo’s Oprah Winfrey.
      They have a clear vision, energize others, manage for the long term, and not swayed by short-term profit or stock market valuations.
  • Level Six: Transcendent, who focus on broader social benefit beyond their personal affiliations.
    Purpose-Driven Model of Leadership
    Examples include Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., and the Dalai Lama.

These frameworks provide a structure to evaluate the words and actions of current political and business leaders, and suggest potential leadership vulnerabilities.

-*What level of leader do you observe in the highest levels of your work organization?
-*What practices are you implementing to develop your next level of leadership skill?

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©Kathryn Welds

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Leadership “From the Inside Out”

Kevin Cashman

Kevin Cashman

Kevin Cashman provides a leadership development frame that complements Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence concepts and Jim Collins’s delineation of Level 5 Leadership, in his book Leadership from the Inside Out.

He is Senior Partner, Korn/Ferry International, and Leadership From the Inside Outhis research and experience indicate that leadership effectiveness originates in the individual’s personal character.

If individuals wish to develop leadership skills, they must apply “learning agility” to acquire new perspectives and skills, then deploy them under new business circumstances.

Cashman reviewed the four elements of “learning agility”:

Mental agility, characterized by questioning solutions, consulting others, demonstrating openness

Interpersonal agility, based on effective, precise listening, using questions to elicit clarification

Results agility, or developing new approaches to achieve results, incorporate new ways to resolve problems

Change agility, which includes flexibility and adaptability

Cashman found three steps in leadership development, common across many approaches, and recommended these elements in any leadership development program:

Building Awareness – Self-discovery of strengths, development areas

Building Commitment – Developing emotional engagement to act on developmental needs and to apply strengths

Building Practice – Undertaking new actions such as journaling to build awareness, commitment and reflection on learnings.

The goal of these steps is to develop three aspects of leadership:

Authenticity, characterized by integrity, alignment between words and actions that is recognized by others; continued striving toward authenticity in future potential

Influence, involving the self-expression and application of personal strengths to create value

Value creation in work and community

Leadership from the Inside Out outlines seven related pathways to leadership mastery, with related practices.
Many of these recommendations may sound spiritual, philosophical, non-specific, and difficult to translate into specific actions.
One element of self-reflection in Cashman’s process may be to operationalize these recommendations into concrete, measurable actions:

Personal Mastery, based on developing self-awareness

Purpose Mastery involves applying talents to serve values and add value through authentic self-expression in leading others

Change Mastery, incorporates acceptance of uncertainty and impermanence to learn from these changes and demonstrate agility in adapting to new circumstances

Interpersonal Mastery relates to human connection, the second element of Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence. Collaboration is a foundation to create contribution and long-term value

Being Mastery represents a spiritual dimension, however the individual defines it, to connect one’s depth of character to support effectiveness and contribution

Balance Mastery refers to building, maintaining energy to foster resilience, effectiveness, fulfillment. It moves beyond time management, a practice to manage a limited resource, to generate and regenerate energy to lead

Action Mastery practices leading by coaching others and self to create value.

-*What actions have helped develop leadership from the inside out?

Related Posts:
The Considered “Pursuit of Less”
Whom Do You Serve as a (Level 5, Level 6) Leader?  
“Contemplative Neuroscience”: Transform your Mind, Change your Brain
Developing “Big 8” Job Competencies

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Blog: – Kathryn Welds | Curated Research and Commentary

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Considered “Pursuit of Less”

Jim Collins

Jim Collins

Jim Collins in his book How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In, outlined how once-successful companies failed, and discovered that one significant contributor was what he labeled “the undisciplined pursuit of more.”  It is true for companies and it is true for careers.
“The Pursuit of Less” can be easier after separating “The Trivial Many from The Significant Few, as Vilfredo Pareto‘s

Vilfredo Pareto

Vilfredo Pareto

principle outlines.

 
Greg McKeown

Greg McKeown

Greg McKeown, co-author with Liz Wiseman (former VP at Oracle Corporation) of Multipliers: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter, suggests the following steps:

Liz Wiseman

Liz Wiseman

Use more extreme criteria:

  • Do I love this career?
  • Do I love these career activities?

• “What am I deeply passionate about?
• “What taps my talent?
• “What meets a significant need in the world?

These can be organized as a Venn diagram of Talent x Market x Passion to reveal an intersecting area of optimal contribution.

  • What is essential?
    Eliminate the rest
  • Conduct a life audit.
    Eliminate an old activity before you add a new one.

Beware of the endowment effect or divestiture aversion, the self-confirmation bias of valuing something more once we own it.

Kahneman, Knetsch and Thaler found that when coffee mugs and pens of equal value were randomly distributed to volunteers, people were less willing to trade the item they were given for the other item.

The researchers concluded that “owning” either the pen or the coffee mug decreased the volunteers’ willingness to part with their objects, contradicting

Ronald Coase

Ronald Coase

Nobel prize winner Ronald Coase’s economic theorem which predicted that 50% of the objects would be traded.

To break this cognitive bias, Tom Stafford, psychology professor at

Tom Stafford

Tom Stafford

University of Sheffield and author of Mind Hacks, suggests asking “If I did not own this item, how much would I pay, invest, or sacrifice to obtain it?”

Similarly, McKeown argues for considered minimalism and simplicity in organizations, careers, and life.

-*How are you selective about your pursuits in career and life?

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