• Incompetent – Failing to create positive change;
• Rigid – Not adapting to new ideas, conditions;
• Intemperate – Lacking self-control;
• Callous – Uncaring and unkind, discounting needs and wishes of group members, especially subordinates;
• Corrupt – Advancing self-interest ahead of public interest, through “lying, cheating, and stealing”;
• Insular – Disregarding health and welfare of outsiders;
• Evil – Committing atrocities, using pain as an instrument of power, exerting physical, psychological harm.
Kellerman’s earlier work focused on Hitler’s leadership, and asserted that his power wouldn’t have existed without followership.
She noted that uninvolved bystanders who do not speak up enable bad leaders to continue their practices.
This effect was documented in social science research more than forty years ago by NYU’s John Darley and Bibb Latané of Columbia, labeled “Bystander Apathy” .
Given status differentials between leaders and subordinates, followers can break out of complacent observership only if organizational structures enable them to call attention to unethical leadership practices.
Kellerman suggested mitigation practices for various organizational structures.