“Feminine Charm” as Negotiation Tactic

“Feminine charm” was once one of the few available negotiation tactics for women and has been portrayed in novels by Charlotte Brontë, Jane Austen, and George Eliot. United States Secretary of State Madeleine Albright conceded to interviewer Bill Maher that she used “charm” in negotiations with heads of state, inspiring University of California, Berkeley’s Laura […]

Range Offers vs Point Offers in Negotiation for Advantageous Settlements

Many people hesitate to present a negotiation offer as a range of values, assuming that co-negotiators will anchor on the lower value in the range as a “reservation price.”  This is based on the power of first offers as negotiation anchors, demonstrated in research by University of Chicago’s Nicholas Epley and Thomas Gilovich of Cornell. Contrary […]

“Precise” Offers Provide Negotiation Advantage

Opening negotiation offers typically “anchor” the discussion and shape settlement values. Many people make opening offers in “round” numbers like $10 instead of “precise” numbers like $9. However, “round number offers” were less effective than “precise” offers in negotiations, found Columbia’s Malia Mason, Alice J. Lee, Elizabeth A. Wiley, and Daniel Ames. Negotiators can improve their outcomes […]

Women May Undermine Salary Negotiations with Excessive Gratitude

Full, candid self-disclosure can hamper outcomes for poker players and negotiators. This idea was confirmed in an experiment by Monash University’s Andreas Leibbrandt and John A. List of the University of Chicago, when women undermined their salary negotiations by revealing their gratitude for a salary that exceeded their expectations. Participants were women applying for administrative […]

Anxiety Undermines Negotiation Performance

Anxious negotiators make lower first offers, exit earlier, and earn lower profits  due to their “low self-efficacy” beliefs, according to Harvard’s Alison Wood Brooks and Maurice E. Schweitzer of University of Pennsylvania, Brooks and Schweitzer induced anxious feelings or neutral reactions during continuous “shrinking-pie” negotiation tasks. Compared with negotiators experiencing neutral feelings, negotiators who feel […]

Implicit Discrimination Associated with Meritocratic Beliefs, Low Empathy

Americans more than other nationalities, embrace the idea of meritocracy – that rewards are distributed based on merit, a combination of ability + effort with success, described by University of London’s Michael Young with Sheri Kunovich of Southern Methodist University, and Ohio State’s Kazimierz M. Slomczynski. Microsoft’s CEO, Satya Nadella, made headlines when asked his advice […]

Men Negotiate More Assertively with Women Managers

Men volunteers negotiated more assertively with women in supervisory roles in laboratory tasks, compared with strategies they used with male supervisors, reported Bocconi University’s Ekaterina Netchaeva, Maryam Kouchaki of Northwestern University, and Washington State University’s Leah D. Sheppard. This cross-gender negotiation trend was reduced when woman in supervisory roles demonstrated directness and proactivity (“administrative agency”) […]

Gender Differences in Emotional Expression: Smiling

Previous blog posts have outlined dilemmas women face in being seen as competent yet  “likeable” in negotiations. Deborah Gruenfeld of Stanford and researcher Carol Kinsey Goman note that women can increase perceived authority. if they smile when situationally-appropriate instead of consistently. They imply that observers assign different interpretations to women’s smiles than to men’s smiles. Washington University […]