Expressing Anger at Work: Power Tactic or Career-Limiting Strategy?

Expressions of anger at work can be triggered by organizational pressures including complex relationships, chronic constraints, high stakes, and factors beyond individual control. When women and men express anger at work, they receive different evaluations of status, competence, leadership effectiveness. Both male and female evaluators conferred lower status on angry female professionals, regardless of the actual […]

Women Who Express Anger Seen as Less Influential

Men who expressed anger were more likely to influence their peers, found Arizona State University’s Jessica Salerno and Liana Peter-Hagene of University of Illinois in their study of computer-mediated mock jury proceedings. In contrast, women who expressed anger were seen as less influential, reinforcing trends reported in a previous blog post. More than 200 U.S. jury-eligible volunteers reviewed opening arguments […]

How Effective are Strategic Threats, Anger, and Unpredictability in Negotiations?

Most researchers conclude that negotiators who establish a collaborative atmosphere for a “win-win” solution achieve superior results. However, Marwan Sinaceur of  INSEAD and Stanford’s Larissa Tiedens investigated the potentially-risky tactic of employing strategic anger in negotiations, and found that anger expressions increase expressers’ advantage and “ability to claim value” when negotiation partners think they have […]

Activate Women’s, Minorities’ Stereotype Threat Reactance to Enhance Performance

Stereotype threat occurs when prevailing but often-inaccurate concepts of a group’s typical behavior are activated among these group members. This experience is associated with reduced scores on standardized test performance for women and African Americans in numerous studies by Stanford’s Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson now of NYU. When Steele and Aronson elicited “reactance” (resistance) […]

“Precise” Offers Provide Negotiation Advantage

Opening negotiation offers typically “anchor” the discussion and shape settlement values. Many people make opening offers in “round” numbers like $10 instead of “precise” numbers like $9. However, “round number offers” were less effective than “precise” offers in negotiations, found Columbia’s Malia Mason, Alice J. Lee, Elizabeth A. Wiley, and Daniel Ames. Negotiators may improve their outcomes […]

Women May Undermine Salary Negotiations with Excessive Gratitude

Negotiators and poker players know the value of limiting full self-disclosure in words and non-verbal expressions. However, some women undermined their salary negotiations by revealing their gratitude for a salary that exceeded their expectations in an experiment by Monash University’s Andreas Leibbrandt and John A. List of the University of Chicago. Participants were women applying for […]

Negotiation Drama: Strategic Umbrage, Line-Crossing Illusion, and Assertiveness Biases

Optimally matching assertiveness style to specific situations can determine success in negotiations, according to Columbia University’s Daniel Ames and Abbie Wazlawek. Earlier, Ames and Stanford’s Frank Flynn reported that moderate levels of assertiveness are associated with career advancement, and with effective negotiation and influence in conflict situations. They also found that most observers provided consistent […]

Implicit Discrimination Associated with Meritocratic Beliefs, Low Empathy

Americans more than other nationalities, embrace the idea of meritocracy – that rewards are distributed based on merit, a combination of ability + effort with success, described by University of London’s Michael Young with Sheri Kunovich of Southern Methodist University, and Ohio State’s Kazimierz M. Slomczynski. Microsoft’s CEO, Satya Nadella, made headlines when asked his advice […]

Men Negotiate More Assertively with Women Managers

Men volunteers negotiated more assertively with women in supervisory roles in laboratory tasks, compared with strategies they used with male supervisors, reported Bocconi University’s Ekaterina Netchaeva, Maryam Kouchaki of Northwestern University, and Washington State University’s Leah D. Sheppard. This cross-gender negotiation trend was reduced when woman in supervisory roles demonstrated directness and proactivity (“administrative agency”) […]

Plastic Surgery Changes Perceived Personality Traits

People often evaluate others using facial profiling — making inferences of personality attributes by visual observation, according to Georgetown University Hospital’s Michael J. Reilly, Jaclyn A. Tomsic and Steven P. Davison, collaborating with Stephen J. Fernandez of MedStar Health Research Institute. This cognitive shortcut can lead to biased impressions and limited opportunities for those unfavorably judged. The research team asked […]