Anxiety Undermines Negotiation Performance

Anxious negotiators make lower first offers, exit earlier, and earn lower profits  due to their “low self-efficacy” beliefs, according to Harvard’s Alison Wood Brooks and Maurice E. Schweitzer of University of Pennsylvania, Brooks and Schweitzer induced anxious feelings or neutral reactions during continuous “shrinking-pie” negotiation tasks. Compared with negotiators experiencing neutral feelings, negotiators who feel […]

Activate Women’s, Minorities’ Stereotype Threat Reactance to Enhance Performance

Stereotype threat occurs when prevailing but often-inaccurate concepts of a group’s typical behavior are activated among these group members. This experience is associated with reduced scores on standardized test performance for women and African Americans in numerous studies by Stanford’s Claude Steele and Joshua Aronson now of NYU. When Steele and Aronson elicited “reactance” (resistance) […]

“Precise” Offers Provide Negotiation Advantage

Opening negotiation offers typically “anchor” the discussion and shape settlement values. Many people make opening offers in “round” numbers like $10 instead of “precise” numbers like $9. However, “round number offers” were less effective than “precise” offers in negotiations, found Columbia’s Malia Mason, Alice J. Lee, Elizabeth A. Wiley, and Daniel Ames. Negotiators may improve their outcomes […]

Women May Undermine Salary Negotiations with Excessive Gratitude

Negotiators and poker players know the value of limiting full self-disclosure in words and non-verbal expressions. However, some women undermined their salary negotiations by revealing their gratitude for a salary that exceeded their expectations in an experiment by Monash University’s Andreas Leibbrandt and John A. List of the University of Chicago. Participants were women applying for […]

Negotiation Drama: Strategic Umbrage, Line-Crossing Illusion, and Assertiveness Biases

Optimally matching assertiveness style to specific situations can determine success in negotiations, according to Columbia University’s Daniel Ames and Abbie Wazlawek. Earlier, Ames and Stanford’s Frank Flynn reported that moderate levels of assertiveness are associated with career advancement, and with effective negotiation and influence in conflict situations. They also found that most observers provided consistent […]

“Emotional Contagion” in the Workplace through Social Observation, Social Media

Emotions can be “contagious” between individuals, and can affect work group dynamics. Emotional contagion is characterized by replicating emotions displayed by others, and differs from empathy, which enables understanding another’s emotional experience without actually experiencing it, according to Virginia Commonwealth University’s S. Douglas Pugh. In addition to direct interpersonal contact, “viral emotions” can be transmitted […]

Mindfulness Meditation Improves Decisions, Reduces Sunk-Cost Bias

Brief meditation sessions can reduce the tendency to base current decisions on past “sunk costs,” reported Wharton’s Sigal Barsade, with Andrew C. Hafenbrack and Zoe Kinias of INSEAD. “Sunk-cost bias” is the prevalent tendency to continue unsuccessful actions after time and money have been invested. Frequent examples include: Holding poorly-performing stock market investments, Staying in […]

Implicit Discrimination Associated with Meritocratic Beliefs, Low Empathy

Americans more than other nationalities, embrace the idea of meritocracy – that rewards are distributed based on merit, a combination of ability + effort with success, described by University of London’s Michael Young with Sheri Kunovich of Southern Methodist University, and Ohio State’s Kazimierz M. Slomczynski. Microsoft’s CEO, Satya Nadella, made headlines when asked his advice […]

Men Negotiate More Assertively with Women Managers

Men volunteers negotiated more assertively with women in supervisory roles in laboratory tasks, compared with strategies they used with male supervisors, reported Bocconi University’s Ekaterina Netchaeva, Maryam Kouchaki of Northwestern University, and Washington State University’s Leah D. Sheppard. This cross-gender negotiation trend was reduced when woman in supervisory roles demonstrated directness and proactivity (“administrative agency”) […]

Power, Confidence Enhance Performance Under Pressure    

Role-based power can affect performance in pressure-filled situations, but has less impact on lower pressure environments, according to University of Toronto’s Sonia K. Kang, Adam D. Galinsky of Columbia University, University of California, Berkeley’s Laura J. Kray and Aiwa Shirako of Google. Kang’s team assigned more than 130 volunteers to same-gender pairs in three negotiations experiments. […]