A single incident of incivility in the workplace can result in significant operational costs, reported Christine Pearson of Thunderbird School of Global Management and Christine Porath of Georgetown University.
They cited consequences of workplace incivility:
- Decreased work effort due to disengagement,
- Less time at work to reduce contact with offensive co-workers or managers,
- Decreased work productivity due to ruminating about incivility incidents,
- Less commitment to the organization,
Additional organizational symptoms include:
- Increased customer complaints,
- Accentuated cultural and communications barriers,
- Reduced confidence in leadership,
- Less adoption of changed organizational processes,
- Reduced willingness to accept additional responsibility and make discretionary work efforts.
Workplace incivility behaviors were described as “rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others,” noted Pearson and Lynne Andersson, then of St. Joseph’s University.
“Uncivil” behaviors were enumerated in The Baltimore Workplace Civility Study by Johns Hopkins’ P.M. Forni and Daniel L. Buccino with David Stevens and Treva Stack of University of Baltimore:
- Refusing to collaborate on a team project,
- Shifting blame for an error to a co-worker,
- Reading another’s mail,
- Neglecting to say “please,” “thank you”,
- Taking a co-worker’s food from the office refrigerator without asking.
Respondents classified more extreme unacceptable behaviors as “violent”:
- Pushing a co-worker during an argument,
- Yelling at a co-worker,
- Firing a subordinate during a disagreement,
- Criticizing a subordinate in public,
- Using foul language in the workplace.
Workplace bullying was included in Gary Namie’s Campaign Against Workplace Bullying.
He defined bullying as “the deliberate repeated, hurtful verbal mistreatment of a person (target) by a cruel perpetrator (bully).
His survey of more than 1300 respondents found that:
- More than one-third of respondents observed bullying in the previous two years,
- More than 80% of perpetrators were workplace supervisors,
- Women bullied as frequently as men,
- Women were targets of bullying 75% of the time,
- Few bullies were punished, transferred, or terminated from jobs.
Costs of health-related symptoms experienced by bullying targets included:
- Sleep loss, anxiety, inability to concentrate, which reduced work productivity,
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 31% of women and 21% of men,
- Frequent rumination about past bullying, leading to inattention, poor concentration, and reduced productivity.
Widespread prevalence of workplace incivility was also reported by Forni, who suggested ways to improve workplace interactions and inclusion:
- Assume that others have positive intentions,
- Pay attention, listen,
- Include all co-workers in workplace activities,
- Avoid complaints,
- Acknowledge others,
- Give praise when warranted,
- Respect others’ opinions, time, space, indirect refusals,
- Avoid asking personal questions,
- Be selective in asking for favors,
- Sincerely apologize when warranted,
- Provide constructive suggestions for improvement,
- Maintain personal grooming, health, and work environment,
- Accept responsibility and blame, if deserved.
More than 95% of respondents in The Baltimore Workplace Civility Study suggested, “Keep stress and fatigue at manageable levels,” a challenging goal for leaders who shape workplace cultures.
Organizationalhange recommendations include:
- Instituting a grievance process to investigate and address complaints of incivility,
- Selecting prospective employees with effective interpersonal skills,
- Offering a clearly-written policy on interpersonal conduct,
- Adopting flexibility in scheduling, assignments, and work-life issues.
-*How do you handle workplace incivility when you observe or experience it?
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Gary W. Kelly wrote, in response to http://www.apaexcellence.org/resources/goodcompany/newsletter/article/635:
Excellent post. It covers the bases well, and documents the studies supporting the statements. Obviously, bullying is a contributor to incivility and must be one of the zero tolerance items. That can be difficult as many managers from the CEO down want to use “military manners”–perhaps from experiences they had or learned. They are often bullying, abusive, and intolerant of any other agenda than the one they have. Intolerance of others, regardless of the reasons given, fosters incivility. A climate of civility must begin at the top of the organization. Management has to walk the talk, and exemplify the values that are being professed. In that sense, this is a hard sell. Management is not readily convinced that civility must begin with themselves until the organization is in trauma from a manifestation of bad practices.
Kathryn Welds replied
Thanks, Gary, for your analysis of organizational sources of incivility – often top management, for tolerating or enabling these behaviors.
The costs of workplace incivility are discussed here: https://kathrynwelds.com/2012/12/02/costs-of-workplace-incivility/
Gary W. Kelly continued:
Very well done! 🙂
It does remind me of my mentor, an organizational psychologist, who related how he had to teach doctors in a distinguished medical institution, common courtesy and civility. He never thought his job would involve teaching something as basic as courtesy and respect to well educated physicians who were advanced in management, too. They had not a clue that they were abusive and were the source of the dysfunctional operation of the unit. We were taught to expect to have to teach common courtesy and mutual respect to all members of an organization. Your post eloquently illustrates why. Thanks for posting.
Thank you for updating us about Costs of Workplace Incivility.