A single incident of incivility in the workplace can result in significant operational costs, reported Christine Pearson of Thunderbird School of Global Management and Christine Porath of Georgetown University.
They cited consequences including:
- Intentional decrease in work effort due to disengagement (48% affected employees),
- Intentional decrease time at work to reduce contact with perpetrator (47%),
- Lost work time due to worrying about the incident (80%),
- Lost work productivity due to avoiding the perpetrator (63%),
- Reduced commitment to the organization after the incident (78%),
- Attrition (12% change jobs).
Less tangible organizational symptoms include:
- Increased consumer complaints,
- Cultural and communications barriers,
- Lack of confidence in leadership,
- Inability to adapt effectively to change,
- Lack of individual accountability.
Workplace incivility behaviors are typically “rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others,” noted Pearson and Lynne Andersson, then of St. Joseph’s University.
Specific behaviors deemed “uncivil”, acceptable, and violent were enumerated in The Baltimore Workplace Civility Study by Johns Hopkins’ P.M. Forni and Daniel L. Buccino with David Stevens and Treva Stack of University of Baltimore.
Respondents agreed that unacceptable, “uncivil” behaviors include:
- Taking a co-worker’s food from the office refrigerator without asking (93%),
- Refusing to collaborate on a team project (90%),
- Shifting blame for an error to a co-worker (88%),
- Reading another’s mail (88%),
- Neglecting to say “please,” “thank you” (88%).
Fewer respondents evaluated the following items as “acceptable workplace behavior:”
- Taking the last cup of coffee without making a new pot (20%),
- Not returning telephone calls and/or e-mails (17%),
- Ignoring a co-worker (12%).
Respondents classified the following unacceptable behaviors as “violent”:
- Pushing a co-worker during an argument (85%),
- Yelling at a co-worker (59%),
- Firing a subordinate during a disagreement (41%),
- Criticizing a subordinate in public (34%),
- Using foul language in the workplace (28%).
Workplace bullying was also included in the Campaign Against Workplace Bullying report by Gary Namie.
He defined bullying as “the deliberate repeated, hurtful verbal mistreatment of a person (target) by a cruel perpetrator (bully).
His survey of more than 1300 respondents found that:
- More than one-third of respondents observed bullying in the previous two years,
- More than 80% of perpetrators were workplace supervisors,
- Women bullied as frequently as men (50% of perpetrators),
- Women were targets of bullying 75% of the time,
- Few bullies were punished, transferred, or terminated from jobs (7%).
Quantifiable costs of health-related symptoms experienced by bullying targets included:
- Depression (41%),
- Sleep loss, anxiety, inability to concentrate (80%), which reduced work productivity,
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 31% of women and 21% of men,
- Frequent rumination about past bullying, leading to inattention, poor concentration, and reduced productivity (79%).
Widespread prevalence of workplace incivility was noted by Forni, who offered specific suggestions to improve workplace interactions and inclusion:
- Assume that others have positive intentions,
- Pay attention, listen,
- Be agreeable, inclusive,
- Speak kindly, avoid complaints,
- Acknowledge others, accept and give praise,
- Respect others’ opinions, time, space, indirect refusals,
- Embrace silence, avoid personal questions, be selective in asking for favors,
- Apologize earnestly,
- Assert yourself, provide criticism constructively,
- Respect others by attending to grooming, health, environment,
- Accept responsibility and blame, if deserved.
More than 95% of respondents in The Baltimore Workplace Civility Study suggested an aspirational and sometimes challenging intervention: “Keep stress and fatigue at manageable levels.”
Structural and process change recommentations include:
- Instituting a grievance process to investigate and address complaints of incivility (95%),
- Selecting prospective employees with effective interpersonal skills in (91%),
- Clear, written policy on interpersonal conduct (90%),
- Adopting flexibility in scheduling, assignments, and work-life issues (90%).
-*How do you handle workplace incivility when you observe or experience it?
White Men can Lead in Improving Workplace Culture