Confidence is correlated with career effectiveness and advancement.
However when people exhibit too much of a good thing, their behavior may seem “narcissistic.”
The narcissistic personality is characterized by:
- Inflated views of the self,
- Self-focus and vanity, and
- Self-importance, according to a team including San Diego State University’s Jean M. Twenge, with Sara Konrath and Brad J. Bushman of University of Michigan, collaborating with University of South Alabama’s Joshua D. Foster, and Keith Campbell of University of Georgia,
One of the most frequently-used, well-validated assessment instruments to identify narcissism is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, developed by University of California Berkeley’s Robert Raskin and Calvin S. Hall, and used by researchers rather than by pre-employment screeners.
Raskin and UC Berkeley colleague, Howard Terry examined responses from more than 1000 volunteers and found seven constructs related to narcissism:
In addition, Raskin and Terry related these ratings of “self” and “ideal self” to participants’ responses on the Leary Interpersonal Check List, developed by Harvard’s Timothy Leary before he investigated psychedelic drugs.
An alternative to Leary’s valid and reliable, yet lengthy and time-consuming NPI, University of Michigan’s Sara Konrath, Brian P. Meier of Gettysburg College, and Ohio State’s Brad J. Bushman of Indiana University developed The Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS) to measure grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy characteristic of “narcissistic” behavior.
They asked more than 2,200 participants to rate their answer to a single question on a scale of one to seven: To what extent do you agree with this statement? “I am a narcissist.”
Konrath’s team demonstrated SINS that is a valid and reliable alternative to longer narcissism scales because it is significantly correlated with scores on the NPI, and uncorrelated with social desirability, or lack of concern about what others think of them.
In addition, people who score high on the NPI and SINS are willing to admit that they act more arrogant, condescending, argumentative, critical, and prone to brag than people who score low on the NPI, according to findings by University of Toronto’s Erika Carlson.
Eleven validation studies of the SINS conducted by Konrath’s team found narcissism related to:
- Negative emotions including anger, shame, guilt, and fear,
- Low empathy for others including indicators of low perspective-taking, low empathic concern, and little personal distress when others experience distress,
- Minimal commitment to relationship partners.
People who scored high for narcissism also showed behaviors that can be problematic at work:
- Reactive anger and aggression, particularly in response to perceived threats to “self-worth” including “insufficient” admiration and respect, such as in performance reviews,
- “Salary entitlement” in believing they deserve higher compensation than peers, even under adverse business conditions.
However, people who scored high for narcissism displayed positive attributes including:
If you think you’re working with a narcissist, you can confirm or disconfirm your inference by asking the person the single question: To what extent do you agree with this statement? “I am a narcissist.”
Interacting with a narcissist in the workplace can be challenging, and a previous blog post identifies recommended strategies.
-*How do you identify narcissists in the workplace and in personal life?
-*What are more effective ways to work with them?
- Least Skillful Performers May Have Greatest Self-Delusions of Skill: Pointy-Haired Boss Effect
- Managing “Triadic Managers” and Navigating Office Politics by Becoming a Little Like Them
- “Honest Confidence” Enables Performance, Perceived Power
- Costs of Workplace Incivility
Blog – Kathryn Welds | Curated Research and Commentary
LinkedIn Open Group Psychology in Human Resources (Organisational Psychology)