Sheryl Sandberg wasn’t inclined to negotiate for her salary when offered the role as COO of Facebook until she forcefully urged by her husband and brother-in-law, she revealed on 60 Minutes while promoting Lean In.
In contrast, the majority of respondents in Accenture’s 2012 online survey of 4,100 business executive women and men born between 1946 and 1994 from medium to large organizations across 33 countries had asked for or negotiated a pay raise.
Almost as many women as men asked, and the number of women who negotiated increased by 10% in just one year.
Their results were effective: four out of five respondents who negotiated a pay raise received one.
The Accenture study may demonstrate a changing trend for the better: Almost half of all respondents reported that they had asked for a promotion, suggesting greater willingness to advocate for themselves to achieve the second priority, monetary reward.
University of Texas’s Emily Amanatullah and Michael Morris of Columbia University argue that gender differences in negotiations reflect women’s “contextually contingent impression management strategies,” meaning that women’s assertive bargaining behavior is judged as “congruent” with female gender roles in some contexts yet not in others.
As a result, most women intuitively consider this “contextual variation” and potential “backlash” against perceived incongruity when negotiating, and adjust bargaining behavior to “manage social impressions.”
In a controlled lab study, women who advocated for themselves reduced their assertive behaviors and competing tactics, resulting in poorer negotiation outcomes.
In contrast, when women advocated for others, they achieved better outcomes because they did not reduce assertive behaviors or engage in “hedging.”
Outside the lab, women inspired by Lean In have filed still-unpublicized lawsuits again several large organizations, arguing that they were denied salary increases and role advancement after participating in Lean In groups and mentioning the small number of women in leadership roles.
Whether these cases represent “backlash” will be evaluated in courts, research centers, and popular discussion.
Margaret Neale of Stanford Graduate School of Business said, “Negotiation is interdependent process – every bad deal you’ve gotten, you’ve agreed to.”
-*Harsh or true?
From her empirical research, Neale offers practical model to structure more effective negotiations, summarized by the acronym APAP:
- What are the alternative/fall-backs to negotiating?
- What’s the aspirational goal-optimistic assessment?
Is it realistic?
What’s the walk-away bottom line?
- Assess: How much influence do you have?
Could the benefits of negotiating outweigh the costs?
- Prepare: What are your interests?
What are the other person’s interests?
- Ask: Propose a solution that packages issues with benefits to the other, the group, and you
- Package: Avoid issue-by-issue negotiation by trading among issues,
Use If-then statements for counter-proposals
Bundle alternative proposals
Simmons College’s Deborah Kolb and Carol Frohlinger of Negotiating Women, Inc identified three types of negotiation “moves” in their critique women’s leadership development programs that focus on solely skill development to “fix women”:
Power Moves to interest others in participating in the negotiation discussion
- Offer incentives
- Raise the cost of not negotiating
- Enlist support
Process Moves to structure the negotiation interaction
- Take control of the agenda
- Seed ideas
- Appreciative Moves to enable the negotiation conversation to continue
- Solicit new perspectives
- Enable the conversation to continue
- Help others “save face”
Kolb and Frohlinger advocate skill building coupled with organizational development to overcome structural barriers to women’s advancement and unconscious bias that may exclude women from participating in developmental assignments and being considered for advancement.
A counterpoint argument is that women can control their self-development, but they have less control over their organization’s willingness to transform its culture, practices, and awareness of bias.
Recommendations to Craft and Sell a Better Deal
- Acknowledge that “everything is negotiable”
- Ask which elements of the compensation package are negotiable
- Examine possible low sense of entitlement to higher salaries and job roles, and related negotiation anxiety
- Define goals (optimistic upside, walk-away bottom-line)
- Assess your leverage: Competing offers, past accomplishments, future potential
- Plan negotiation rationale (citing specific accomplishments, results, value to the organization, benefit to the negotiation partner)
- Use mutual inquiry to co-construct solutions to replace traditional Distributive Exchange and Integrative Exchange models, suggested by Linda Putnam, Texas A&M University and Deborah Kolb, Simmons College
- Practice a positive-stated, confident negotiation “pitch” that creates value for both parties by “bundling” solutions (rather than issue-by-issue negotiation)
- Propose timing, set an advantageous anchor point
- Plan counterarguments and counter-offers, “self-talk” to resist conceding and to manage anxiety and maintain interpersonal rapport
- Expect “No” and plan for it
- Embody powerful demeanor in speech, dress, posture
- Justify the salary request based on a supporting “business case”
- Communicate concern for organizational relationships
- Justify the salary request based on the relationship
- Establish a positive yet persuasive tone
- Employ delay tactics to avoid being the first to name a salary figure
- Incorporate tips to sell yourself while anticipating objections and being personable but not personal
-*How likely are you to ask for a salary increase or promotion?
-*What factors do you consider before making a request for more money or an expanded role?
-*Consider your reaction to negotiations you have observed, and ask others who participate in salary negotiation their reactions to these questions:
- What is the best negotiation pitch you’ve heard for a job-related salary increase or role promotion?
- How did the person overcome objections?
- How did the person manage the relationship with the negotiating partner?
-*How do you ask for what you want at work?
-*What power tactics do you employ to influence your negotiation outcomes?
-*How do you prepare for negotiations and overcome objections during negotiations?
- Negotiation Style Differences: Women Don’t Ask for Raises or Promotions as Often as Men
- “Everything is Negotiable”: Prepare, Ask, Revise, Ask Again
- Power Tactics for Better Negotiation
- Women Balance on the Negotiation Tightrope to Avoid Backlash
- Authoritative Non-Verbal Communication for Women in the Workplace
- How Effective are Strategic Threats, Anger, and Unpredictability in Negotiations?
- Women’s Likeability – Competence Dilemma: Overcoming the Backlash Effect
- What Do (Executive) Women (and Men) Want? Accenture Uncovers Priorities
- Women’s Career Development Model – Individual Action in Career Planning and the Contest and Sponsorship Pathways to Advancement – Part 1 of 2
- Women’s Career Development Model – Individual Action in Negotiation, Networking-Mentoring-Sponsorship, Skillful Self-Promotion – Part 2 of 2